5.1.1 Attacks on civilians by remote delivery
Air attack on civilians crossing Jaffna Lagoon
Shell attack on Jaffna Town: 15th March 1994
June 11th to 13th 1994:
5.1.2 Health conditions in Jaffna
5.1.3 The Regime
5.1.4 Expatriates, Australian visas and visas to Vavuniya
5.2 Developments in South Vanni
5.3 Report on the District of Mannar
5.4 15th March 1994: Kudiraimalai: The massacre of Sinhalese fishermen.
5.4.1 Background :
5.4.2 Immediate causes of the incident :
5.4.3 The massacre & its aftermath.
5.4.4 A week afterwards :
Between 1st October 1993
and 6th January 1994 93 civilians were killed in aerial attacks,
land based shelling and attacks on fishermen at sea. Well over 200 civilians
were injured. Shells or bombs fell into the ICRC controlled safety zone around
Jaffna Teaching Hospital at least 3 times. A Hindu temple in Varani was completely
destroyed. At least 45 civilians died in bombing in and around churches - St.
James Jaffna: 19th November, near St.James again 5th
December, Chavakacheri American Mission Church and Town Centre: 30th
The apparent reason for bombing near
St.James on 5th December when 23 civilians were killed was
a protest march two days earlier over the bombing of 19th November.
During the same period bombs fell in the vicinity of
4 hospitals in the North (Jaffna, Manipay, Killinochchi and Mullaitivu). The
maternity ward at Killinochchi hospital was hit on 15th November
1993 killing 2. The pilot had apparently thought that a tank captured by the
LTTE during the Pooneryn attack was in the area. From 6th January
1994 to March end at least 19 (11 at sea) have been killed for the same reasons
in and around the Jaffna peninsula (January: 2 (at sea), February: 4 (2 at sea),
March: 13 (7 at sea)) and at least 38 were injured. Of the 19, one or two died
as the result of aerial attacks during the second half of February. Shells fired
from Mandativu again fell twice within the Jaffna Teaching Hospital safety zone
On 15th and 16th
February, about the time the new Air Chief assumed duties Puccara Aircraft dropped
a total of 15 bombs on Nochchikudah, on the west coast of Killinochchi District.
Two men and two women were killed and ten seriously injured were taken to Jaffna
via Jaffna Lagoon. Since the Pooneryn attack of November, travel across Jaffna
Lagoon has generally been without incident.
A notable exception was 26th
February, a week after the new Air Chief pledged to fight a clean war. The crossing
which commenced at 7.30 P.M. had almost been completed. It was the day after
full moon. The SLAF does not attack on full moon days because of its sanctity
for the Buddhists, and when all meat stalls are closed - previously the only
guaranteed safe day for crossing the lagoon. At 10.00 P.M. one of the last 10
boats south was mid-way across the lagoon when a helicopter appeared and opened
fire. The boat was hit and two were slightly injured. The boatman zig zagged
and continued his journey. 15 minutes latter Puccara aircraft appeared and commenced
bombing over the entire area.
Strangely, a team of Methodist churchmen
with MoD approval was at the tractor point at Nallur, waiting to go by tractor
and board north bound boats to Kilaly. They had sought MoD permission to take
along with them 3 German church folk from Dortmund and had also got approval
for their white van. The aircraft fired rockets at the van and missed. Passengers
in a tractor that had just started, stopped the tractor and took shelter under
the trailer to watch the fireworks on either side of them. Although a high death
toll was initially feared and 3 boats reported missing, in the final count one
or perhaps two had died. One was a lady reported to have fallen into snake pit
while runnig for safety and was bitten. The bags of several passengers who had
run for safety had been stolen.
The Colombo press published the MoD
version which claimed that aircraft had moved in after the LTTE fired at the
helicopter from the sea. According to a reliable witness in the boat first attacked
by the helicopter, there was no firing from the ground (sea) and the LTTE was
not in the vicinity at that time. Others also said that they became aware of
trouble only when attacked from the air. The general consensus was that it was
a planned attack using visibility provided by the near - full moon.
Five shells fired by the army from
Mandativu fell in Jaffna Town at 10.30 A.M. on this day killing four. Though
a routine kind of incident, it was also the day the LTTE massacred Sinhalese
fishermen off Kudiramalai. Any connection however is very hypothetical. One
shell hit the top of a lamp post in Rasavinthottam near the Holy Family Convent
and exploded spraying shrapnel. It was at that instant that Mrs. Indranee Paranthaman
(53) was at the gate receiving Dr. Suntharam Sivayogasundaram (56), a veterinary
surgeon who had come to treat her cow. 0ne of the formers 4 children,
a daughter Gowri(19) and Mr. Pulendran(59) a passer by were also killed. Three
others received injuries through shell explosions, including Mrs. Sinnathurai(80),
mother of Mrs. Paranthaman. Such inncidents are routine.
This period saw an intensification
of shelling which was also random. The areas affected were Valalai, Idaikkadu,
Atchuveli and the coastal area near Jaffna town. During this period several
church festivals were taking place in the latter area. The people believe that
the shellings were delibrately timed for the festivals. Some of the incidents
11th June, Saturday
2 a.m: Gurnagar shelled. Three persons killed: Seran
Niroji (4), Ushanthini Sindhu (8) and Rohini Gallister Suresh (15). The dead
were sleeping in the same house. Six others were injured.
On the night of the same day shells
fell about the Bishops House at St.Patricks. The building of the
social service organisation HUDEC was damaged.
12 th June Sunday :
Shells were fired into the Gurunagar market at 8.00 a.m when the market was
active. Three were killed and thirty injured.
On the same morning two shells fell
in the primises of St. Anthonys, Passayoor, where the church festival
was being celebrated. The shells failed to explode.
13th June 5.00 p.m:
Passayoor shelled again. Four were injured including a pregnant woman.
People in the Gurunagar, Koddadadi
and Passayoor areas are moving out. Those around Atchuveli are moving towards
Avarankal and Puththur.
Among the worst affected by shortages
and general deprivation are the poor, unemployed and refugees whose resistance
is comonly low. The latter often live in crowded temporary hamlets on vacant
lands which are also subject to flooding during rains. The common ailments are
malaria and typhoid. Cholera has disturbingly made its appearance after being
unknown in Jaffna for much of this century. Some infectious ailments resulting
in fever are said to be undiagnosable and in some varieties lead to certain
death. This caused panic in affected areas.
Some of the monthly accounts filed
by SCF, the reporting NGO for Jaffna District are strongly reminiscent of 19th
century administrative reports from parts of the dry zone where illness and
high death rates were endemic:
January 1994 : Cholera seems to have reached
a plateau in most areas but is increasing more rapidly in Pt Pedro. Total admissions
as on 31/1/94 1155. There hasbeen a sharp rise in the number of malaria cases,
including a number which are Chloroquine resistant. Anti-malaria drugs were
out of stock at the end of the month, and Malathion had not arrived. The RDHS
had not received the supply of drugs and medicines for the first quarter ..
NGOs implementing the RFG (German aid) programme are now several months behind because of restrictions on transportation of project materials from Colombo......
water and sanitation facilities cannot presently be constructed so
that public health, especially amongst the displaced population, will continue
to be a perennial problem. [The number displaced is given as 8968 families of
37 767 persons in camps, and 70 866 families of 226 568 persons outside camps.
Total 79, 834 families of 264 335 persons].
Sometimes the peculiar internal politics
of the LTTE spills over as a public event. Rumours are spread to rationalise
the event and the matter is hushed up. Last year a bomb was thrown at the LTTEs
intelligence chief Pottu Amman from which he escaped. Later the sensational
arrest of Mahattaya and his supporters. More recently was the suicide of a member
said to have been very close to the Leader after he went into hiding and a chase
launched to apprehend him.
As for the large number of political
prisoners held, the LTTE continues to put out contradictory statements. The
Counterpoint (November 1993), was told by the LTTEs
one time chief spokesman Anton Balasingam (present status not known) that Manoharan
and Chelvi, two student detainees from Jaffna University, are alive and well.
But since then no indication has been forthcoming.
Many of them settled down to live in
the West and became strong advocates of the Tigers, perhaps to salve their consciences
or to feel virile and militant amidst the reality of their humdrum existence.
Having successfully negotiated their exit from this country, one effect of their
pro-Tiger activity is to condemn their former compatriots in Jaffna to be denied
even visas to Vavuniya by the Tigers. While their sons go to prestigious universities,
school children in Jaffna are imposed upon, and given little choice but to join
the Tigers and die for them, often in disillusionment, preferring to die rather
than to live.
Living in this political environment
amidst death rained on them by their government, with deteriorating infrastructure
and conditions of health, many for a variety of reasons would like to take their
children out. Not to Australia, but just to Colombo, Vavuniya or Trincomalee.
But most of them are actually or effectively denied visas by the Tigers to make
the journey to Vavuniya in the first instance. These people, if anything, should
be commended by their compatriots in the West because they had stuck it out
through many difficult years after 1983, and now the denial of their right to
leave is being legitimised by many of those who had left.
There are many discrepancies in the
way the Tigers operate granting of visas. The amenable elite are kept on very
good terms and they could take their children out freely. In the course of their
travels abroad, they could be trusted to reinforce the LTTEs propaganda,
at least by what they fail to say. Then come the rich with capital outside Jaffna
who could buy their way out, even giving their house to the Tigers. For the
middle class there is the dilemma that if they surrender their house and belongings
to the Tigers, they would have little capital left to earn and start life anew
in Colombo. For the others there is no way they could go unless they had some
special influence within the Tiger bureaucracy.
Many of these people are desperate
to leave not for any selfish reasons, but for pressing reasons of health or
because of family problems. We give a few typical instances.
*The father of the family, a government servant, was abducted by the police in June 1990 in the Polonnaruwa District, was murdered and burnt with 3 others. The wife in Jaffna never saw the body, underwent a terrible trauma and broke down. She went to Colombo for treatment and is now with two daughters, the eldest and youngest of her three children. Her son, a boy, is in Jaffna and has been refused permission by the Tigers to join the mother. This creates much anxiety in the family and hinders the mothers recovery.
The daughter affected by the trauma
of life in Jaffna broke down and came to Colombo for treatment. The mother is
expected to stay in Jaffna with her youngest son, obstructing the daughters
In chapter 3 of the last report
(No 12) we highlighted a general mood of disenchantment towards the LTTEs
politics against pressure from the LTTE on villagers to join its volunteer
force. Essentially, these are people with a collective mind with a memory of
neglect going far back in time. With the onset of the militant struggle in the
80s and several massacres by the Sri Lankan forces, especially during 1984 &
85, the youth readily joined the various militant groups. The first of the major
massacres was the Murungan massacre in the Autumn of 1984 in which more than
100 civilians were killed. As time went more than 200 Sinhalese residents were
killed by militants in sporadic violence resulting in their displacement.
An element in the ethos of the people in the westerly
part of this area is given in the 1921 Census Report: The mean infant
mortality rate of 380 per mille for the decade is much the highest in Ceylon,
being 184 per 1000 higher than the Island rate, and 50 higher than any other
district rate. Weakness both of mothers and children due to malaria infection,
insanitary habits,.... are the stated causes of this figure .... Deaths of women
in childbirth are also excessive, and the following statement made in 1911 is
probably still true: - This matter has now reached such a state that when
a woman conceives she gives up all hope of successfully getting through the
ordeal, and makes all future arrangements subject to that contingency. I think
this hopelessness and fear are great contributing factors to this disastrous
state of affairs.
By pushing them hard to the point of
hopelessness the LTTE invoked a kind of opposition that was both instinctive
and unpremeditated. The LTTE encountered few problems in dealing with the Church.
But with the people it observed some caution. Its collection of 2 sovereigns
of gold or the equivalent in cash, more or less compulsory in Jaffna irrespective
of affordability, was only directed here at people rich by local standards.
Such a person would be say a farmer who owned a tractor. Non payment exposed
them to having the tractor borrowed by the LTTE and returned in a state where
the repairs were far in excess of 2 sovereigns (Rs 10 000/-). But people found
ways of resisting that as well. An elderly woman insisted that she could not
pay. When the LTTE persisted, she said, I will write off a piece of my
land to you. You sell it, take your Rs. 10 000/- and give me the balance.
The LTTE rejected this and went away saying they would call again for the money.
But they never returned. People also discovered that an effective means of controlling
local LTTE leaders was to petition the Chief in Jaffna. The area leader around
Parappankandal left his bicycle outside a shop and went inside to make some
purchases. When he returned his head lamp and dynamo had been stolen. The young
man in his late teens was almost at the point of tears of bewilderment. We seem
to see elements of Wanni culture which so exasperated Dutch colonial rulers
who found Jaffna smooth sailing.
A notable cause of displeasure among farmers which holds
for the entire rural North under LTTE control is the effective monopoly maintained
by the group on the purchase and distribution of rice. The group also controls
transportation across Jaffna Lagoon to the major market in Jaffna. By means
of this monopoly over the staple cereal the LTTE has been able to control the
price of rice and make profits. But for the farmer it has often meant ruin.
To start with, purchases by the LTTE are not well organised from the farmers
point of view. When a private trader is involved the farmer sells quickly for
a better price (about 20% more). Without even sacks to store paddy many farmers
have paddy piled up on floors and attacked by rats.
Discipline among the cadre is also
reportedly more lax than in Jaffna. A common practice among cadre is to exaggerate
the number of bullets used and to retain some for their personal hunting. A
cadre on a hunting expedition fired at his prey and accidentally shot dead a
farmer in his field. The cadre was arrested and taken to Jaffna for disciplinary
Another means by which this disenchantment
surfaces is common in Mannar and Vavuniya. Several villages on the frontline
have decided to stay put if the army moved forward. There were recently rumours
that the LTTE had ordered the people of Naruvalikkulam near Vankalai to vacate
when an army thrust from Vankalai was thought imminent.
What alarmed the LTTE most seems to
have been the large number of cadre from this area leaving the organisation
even before the contract period of 5 years was ended. This means in general
an obligatory punitive stint lasting a few months in lieu of service. This was
brought home to the LTTE which sent cadre to put an end to an illicit liquor
(Kasippu) brewing operation in the jungles near Madhu. What resulted was a near
confrontation. The brewers turned out to be former LTTEers. Startled by this
event, the LTTE summoned a meeting of ex-LTTE members at Madhu. The episode
is said to have brought about a realisation that the numbers from that region
leaving the organisation were comparable with, or perhaps greater than, the
Forthwith, recruitment and training for the Volunteer
Force of people from that area was halted. It appears that it has been deemed
unwise to train and arm large numbers whose commitment to the LTTEs cause
was questionable. For the LTTE this was a consequence of abusing the people
through an instrumental approach instead of raising their standards and maximising
their human potential as a liberation struggle ought to do. [Top]
The district has had the misfortune
to suffer from the baneful politics of the two warring parties. One aspect of
this is the delight both sides seem to derive in hunting down fishermen of the
other ethnic group. Where the district is concerned what is more disturbing
is the lack of political perspective or direction on the part of the government.
On the one hand an announcement earlier in the year that the ban on fishing
in of the North was lifted was attributed to the Ministry of Rehabilitation
and remained uncontradicted. The NGO community interpreted this as the MRR &
SW trying to cut down on the burden of giving dry rations to families of fishermen
in the North. It was also pointed out by others that the ban legally
remained in force unless sanctioned by the Ministry of Defence. In fact everywhere
in the North fishermen continued to be killed by the SL Navy. In Mannar of course
fishermen were told by the army that they could fish. But no one was answerable
if the Navy shot them. Some who believed that there was a relaxation paid with
The Navy stationed at Kalpitiya and unwilling to cover
the part of the coast between Kudiramalai and Mannar Island were given a substitute
drill. This was for two Navy boats to wait off Kudiramalai Point and stop all
the boats proceeding from Kalpitiya to Mannar. After all are assembled a roll
call is taken and the boats are allowed to resume travel. Passengers arriving
in Mannar Island (a cleared area) after an additional 1 ½ hours wait in the
sun are faced with another novelty. They need to stand, including women and
infants, in two gruelling queues for what are effectively a customs check and
immigration clearance. To someone who cannot look important enough and do some
queue jumping the process may at times last two hours. Things are by comparison
far more relaxed at Colombo Airport. There are even body checks. It is ironically
like entering a separate state. The immigration and customs buildings were gifted
as part of a UNHCR Micro Project costing a little under Rs 3 lakhs. The courtesy
is erratic. A Muslim businessman carrying a small quantity of naphthalene balls
to Mannar Island, had declared this on the form and had got it passed by the
Navy at Kalpitiya. While being checked as he was boarding , the naphthalene
balls were removed by a naval rating. When the businessman asked for them back
on the grounds that approval had been obtained, he was badly assaulted by a
petty officer. If one torch battery smuggled or inadvertently carried was discovered
at either end, it would be treated as a significant battle won and a suitable
justication for the entire rigmarole. As a result, with the town generator broken
down for much of April, people living under government protection in Mannar
were unable even to listen to government radio broadcasts. On the other hand
batteries, though at a price, are freely available in LTTE controlled areas.
All this is part of a trend of poor leadership, political indecision and drift.
1st April 1994:
Kokkupadayan (Near Silavatturai) : During the IPKF presence the PLOTE had been
in this village. Acting on the notion that the people had rejected them, the
PLOTE cadre treated the people very badly through beating and general infliction
of physical pain. Although there was some relief when the LTTE took over in
January 1990, the people had become disillusioned with a struggle that had led
to fratricide. Consequently, it is said that not a single youth from the village
joined the LTTE and this was a sore point with the latter. As the war progressed,
the people left for Madhu as refugees.
Following the pull-out of SL forces
from Silavatturai about August 1993, several people decided to resume their
vocation of fishing. Selvam was a partner with his elder brother. During 3 years
at Madhu, the elder brother had done some trading and had meanwhile become physically
unfit for a fisherman. But he provided the capital. At the dawn of 1st
April many of these fishermen were fishing in a bay a few miles south of Arippu.
Two SL Navy gun boats on patrol from Kalpitiya made a quick foray into the bay
and opened fire at anything that caught their sight. The fishermen promptly
left their boats and leapt into the sea. Thanks to a fog that had descended
on the bay and had not lifted at that time, no one was hit. But unfortunately
for Selvams brother, three years on land had deprived him of his stamina
for swimming. Although Selvam made every effort to save him, the brother had
taken in too much brine and died of asphyxia as he was brought ashore. Selvam
took him to Madhu for the burial. The boats of the fishermen were restored to
them by the Sea Tigers.
25th April (Sunday): Pesalai, Mannar Island.
Even with unofficial permission given to fishermen
to fish close to the shore, the catch has been extremely poor and unrewarding
given the long hours of work. When the Colombo press announced the lifting of
the ban, this was taken as a move towards leniency. But legally as explained
above, the ban remained. The fishermen were told unofficially by the authorities
that they could put out to sea at 5.00 A.M. On the day mentioned two brothers
from Pesalai Ward 4 put out to sea at 3.00 A.M. in the hope of a better catch.
The empty boat was in the sequel tossed ashore with bullet holes and chip marks.
When contacted by the police at Pesalai, the Navy at Talai-Mannar accepted responsibility
for the incident. [Top]
The background to the incident has a long history going back
in time to the early British period in which Kalpiddy, Kalpitiya or Calpentyn
as Dutch called it, played a strategic role. Kalpiddy, now the port of destination
for travellers leaving Mannar Island and 60 miles south of it by sea, lies in
the Akkarai Pattu Division of the Puttalam District. The division according
to the Puttalam Gazetteer (Frank Modder, 1908, Reprinted, Navrang, 1993) comprehends
42 villages, and the number of inhabitants in 1831 was reckoned at 5666 in the
proportion of one Malabar to ten Moors. Of Kalpiddy which lies in the north
of the district it says, The inhabitants are composed of Malabars, Burghers,
Javanese and Moors, and according to the Census taken in 1831 amount to 2498.
It says later, The fisheries of Calpentyn have greatly increased within
the last few years, by an influx of fishermen from Mannar and Negombo....
The Gulf of Calpentyn is rich in chanks of the best quality, and also in bicho-de-mar,
which latter is occasionally collected and exported to the markets of Singapore
and Penang by Chinese merchants.
Thus the link between the fishermen
from Mannar and Negombo was a close one. Both were also Roman Catholics, spoke
Tamil and in the early British period the reigion came within the Churchs
Jaffna Diocese. Both also shared religious festivals at Our Lady of Madhu
and at St. Annes Talavillu. Good relations remained although
the Roman Catholic authorities following the Sinhala Only policy
of the government in 1956, commenced the Sinhalisation of large Tamil speaking
Roman Catholic congregations in the districts of Puttalam, Chilaw and Negombo.
The Church itself became communally polarised.
Given its duty to articulate a more responsible politics
at a time of conflict, much of the blame for the incident must be placed on
the Government, and the mindless brutality of the SL Navy. In imposing a fishing
ban on the North the Government gave no thought to how it would affect relations
between communities. The Negombo fishermen are brought to Kalpiddy, taken aboard
boats and trawlers owned mostly by mudalalis which sail north and fish effectively
in Northern waters, officially at least just south of the banned zone. They
also have land facilities in Battalankundu (Karaitivu), an oblong island just
south of Kudiraimalai. The mainland of the Mannar District lies almost east
across Portugal Bay. The situation resulted in an insensitively discriminatory
policy. The Negombo fishermen were given naval protection, nominal as it turned
out, to fish effectively in Northern waters. But for the Tamil fishermen on
the mainland across Portugal Bay, if they so much as showed themselves, could
be mercilessly shot by the SL Navy. There were also in the area small - scale
Sinhalese fishermen operating in small boats owned by them.
The military defeat at Pooneryn prevented
the Navy from further killing of Tamil civilians travelling across Jaffna Lagoon.
Three naval boats and their crew were also lost in suicide attacks during August
1993. Out of a mixture of nervousness and bloody - mindedness the Navy regularly
killed Tamil fishermen harassed by poverty all along the Northern coast. The
press most often faithfully reported the incidents as successes for the Navy
in killing Sea Tigers. At least 15 fishermen were killed by the Navy off the
coast of Jaffna during the four months ending 28th February 1994.
During March the tempo of killing
fishermen seems to have been on the rise again.
6th March - Off Ponnali - 1 fisherman
killed, 2 injured.
7th - Off Vadamaratchi East -
3 killed, 4 injured.
12th - Off Pt Pedro - 1 burnt
with boat, 1 rescued with injuries.
20th - Off Mandativu - 1 missing,
20th - Off Pooneryn - 2 killed.
The decision to massacre was obviously taken at
a high level in the Tiger leadership. Why did they so decide? One reason may
have been to tap the resentment of fishing communities, particularly when their
legitimacy in that area was falling dangerously. As a later development suggests,
there seems to have also been an element of killing two birds with one stone.
The Tigers murdered 25 fishermen on
this day. Only Anthony lived to tell the tale. Anthony said that the killing
took place in the permitted zone. But the press quoted him as having said that
they were in the banned zone. When Anthony checked later with the reporter,
he was informed that this was done as directed by the police.
The testimonies of Malkanthi, wife
of deceased fisherman Denzil Fernando(28) and mother of a 1 ½ years old child;
and Anthony Miral, father of Terrence Miral (17) were of similar import. The
latter because of poverty had gone to the sea at the age of 11. According to
all three witnesses, those killed on that day were all small fishermen who took
few risks and kept well inside the permitted zone. They said that while they
were hardly allowed 1 or 3 litres of petrol for their own use, there were 4
big mudalalis who submitted false requisitions, obtained large quantities of
fuel and traded with the Tigers. The Tigers did of course come to the small
fishermen and occasionally stole or requisitioned their engines . On the morning
of 11th November 1993, 30 engines were removed by the LTTE. They
received a total of Rs 7000/- in compensation for each engine - Rs 5000/- from
the Ministry of Fisheries and Rs 2000/- from their Local Council (Pradeshya
Sabha). Two mudalalis, they said, were caught by the Navy carrying fuel and
other items such as explosives destined for the Tigers. One was sent to Colombo
and was released after a month. They had heard that he had paid a bribe of Rs.16
lakhs. The other was released after two weeks. It was understood by them that
the LTTE had quarrelled with the big mudalalis on account of goods not being
received in return for a large sum paid by them. This they believe was the immediate
cause of their tragedy. They were innocent victims of the play of powerful forces,
as are countless other civilians.
About a week later passengers in a boat bound from
Kalpiddy to Mannar Island saw a speck approaching them fast. It was near them
within a jiffy, and its occupants were observed to be Sea Tigers who signalled
the ship to stop. The Tigers admitted their responsibility for the massacre
and cited the reason as being the Navy killing engadde aakkal (our
people). The passengers were then closely questioned about the reactions in
Kalpitty. The passengers told them that there had been no reprisals against
Tamils at all. The Tigers manner of questioning also suggested to the
passengers their disappointment at the absence of reprisals against Tamils.
The government for its part had shown itself incapable of giving any thought
to basic political imperatives in counter-insurgency. [Top]
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